This is a research proposal essay assignment. The topic is “Children should have limited access to technology”. I have attached the essay instrcution and requirment in the documents, also there are three research proposal essay samples which you need to follow their format. Please be careful with the citations use in the essay, you must find some credible sources to support your ideas. Also, be careful with the thesis statement and you need to use credible sources to make your idea reputable. This research proposal essay assignment is very important to me, please deliver quality work!You need to write 6 pages for this assignment. After you finish the essay, you need to do a writing conference by answering some questions, the questions are attached in the document ” Conference requirments for WR122″. Please carefully read the four attachments before you start working on the research proposal essay.

Writing homework
1 Protect Your Children From Pregnancy As a loving parent, there is nothing more important to you than protecting your child from all the threats and harms they may face on their journey through life. Drugs, sex, and violence are among the most worrisome i ssues that kids are forced to deal with as a result of attending public schools. Your biggest priority when your bundle of joy makes the transition from elementary school, to middle school, to high school is naturally to limit their exposure to these high -risk aspects of society. As outrageous as it may seem, one of the best ways to prevent your children from engaging in self -destructive behavior is to edu cate them thoroughly on these issues . This idea is especially important when dealing with the issue of teenage sex education about pregnancy . Informing your children of the risks and consequences associated with sexual behavior is an imperative part of keeping them healthy and safe. Unfortunately, many parents such as yourselves feel that having sex educat ion taught in schools is morally wrong and psychologically promotes promiscuity at early ages. The fact is, whether teens choose to engage in sexual acts or not, knowledge on how to stay protected is absolutely necessary. Your attempts to ban sex education in schools are threatening your child’s safety and health as well as the safety and health of every child who would be missing out on these programs . The idea to eliminate sex education from public schools statistically appears to be a poor one. It is un derstandable that you would prefer to limit your child’s exposure to sex education because many studies have proven that such programs have promoted earlier participation in sexual activity, namely among females (Oettinger 3). Studies also show, however, t hat these educational programs tend to do more good than harm. Pregnancy is something that the average teen wishes to postpone until a later time in life, such as marriage. Unfortunately, however, teens sometimes lack the proper knowledge to postpone pre gnancy until they’re really ready. One out of every eight of the almost four million babies born in the United States were born to a woman of nineteen years old or younger (Rangel 1). The teen birth rate is about fifty -seven per thousand, or roughly six pe rcent (Rangel 2). There are an incredibly large number of teenaged women who become pregnant against their wishes. A shockingly large number of these pregnancies result in abortions. To give you an idea, f ifty 2 percent of all pregnancies in A merica are unin tended, and fifty percent of these unintended pregnancies are terminated (Feldt 457). The remaining teenage pregnancies are followed through with and result in babies being born to high school mothers who are almost always unmarried, and who are unprepared to take responsibility for their own lives …let alone the lives of their ch ildren. Results from the National Survey of Family Growth Cycle III reveal that as the number of unplanned pregnancies increase, reported cases of child abuse and neglect increase a s well. The survey also states that these unplanned conceptions are almost always the result of either not using birth control, or usi ng birth control incorrectly or inconsistently. Unintended pregnancy among teens results not merely because they choose to have sex, but because they are uneducated of how to protect themselves against it . If teens were more aware of the importance of choosing to either stay abstinent or to practice safe sex the proper way, fewer teens would be forced to take on a roll they a ren’t prepared for. Would you rather your child remain oblivious to an issue that is going to come up eventually anyway, or would you prefer your child to be educated and informed on how to protect themselves when the time to do so comes along? I think we all agree that teenagers deserve the right to protect themselves. What this entails, however, is that teenagers also have the right to an education that will explain how to protect themselves. Your mission is to eliminate programs that are changing lives of young adults for the better. How many young mothers do you think wish they had known the information that schools are trying to teach about various methods of contraception and safe sex ? These young mothers are the reason why your mission needs to end. Taking away sex education in public schools is just as preposterous as taking away your child’s right to protect his or herself. I propose that you take a look at the big picture regarding teenage pregnancies. Look at all the teenagers that became parents as a result of being uneducated about sex. Those young men and women could have easily be en your son or daughter. Joycelyn Elders, former U.S. Surgeon General stated… “Ignorance is not bliss…Children who know more, whose parents have taught them about the se things, or if they’ve learned it at school, are far less likely to engage in sexual activity. And if they do, they’re far more likely to be responsible, to use appropriate methods of contraception or control. It’s the children who have not yet had this kind of education who get in trouble” (Progressive) . Don’t let the children in trouble be your own. Allow sex education programs to be taught in public schools. 3 Works Cited Feldt, Gloria. “Against Abortion? Family Planning Can Stop It.” Vol. 90 Issue 175 09 Aug 2006 . Hamilton, Sabrina. “Students Picket In Support of Birth Control.” 25 May 2006 2. 09 Aug 2006 . Health, Education, and Human Services Di vision, “Profile of Teenage Mothers.” United States General Accounting Office . 1998. Oettinger, Gerald. “The Effects of Sex Education on Teen Sexual Activity and Teen Pregnanc y.” Vol. 107, Issue 3606. 08 Aug 2006 . “Teen Mothers: Selected Socio -Demographic Characteristics and Risk Factors.” 27. 08 Aug 2006 . Vargas, Christine. “The EPICC Quest for Prescription Contraceptive Insurance Coverage.” American Journal of Law & Medicine . 2002. Zuravin, Susan. “Unplanned Pregnancies, Family Planning Problems, and Child Maltreatment.” V ol. 36, Issue 25. 09 Aug 2006 . Single Sex Education: The Way Into Our Children’s Minds Our children are growing up in a world where women and men are increasingly en joying equal opportunities in all aspects of life. A new standard is emerging, and if children are to succeed in it, we must encourage their self -expression. Both boys and girls need to discover their own strengths and talents to understand who they are an d who they want to become. If parents are truly interested in their children’s well -being, it is imperative that all children receive support, encouragement and skills not based on gender stereotypes in order to make the most out of new opportunities. 4 Single -sex (from now on referred to as “SS”) public education has experienced an increase in interest in the last five years from both educators and parents. The United States Department of Education has promoted this style of learning by recently publishi ng new guidelines governing SS classrooms, allowing public schools to offer SS classrooms and giving communities more flexibility in offering additional choices to parents in the education of their children (DoE). These regulations were put in place as a r evision to the 1972 Title IX Education Amendments which prohibited sex discrimination in public education programs or activities. I hope to raise the knowledge of certain advantages of SS education by providing research that proves the benefits of these environments and promotes their increase within communities nationwide. SS Education has been the subject of increasing interest among researchers, including Carol Gilligan who received her PhD in social psychology from Harvard and spent over 30 years there as a professor of gender studies (Wikipedia). In 1982, Dr. Gilligan authored a book that led both educational and medical professionals to more closely examine what actually goes on in co – ed classrooms. Throughout her research she discovered that gi rls think, interact, lead and make decisions in a way that is distinctive both psychologically and developmentally. Schooling had previously been modeled after a male’s way of learning, so the conclusion that girls in fact do think differently was a major milestone for the public education system. Although much early research on SS education was focused on girls, there also are increasing amounts of studies being published that establish boys’ advantages within SS environments. Because of the recent rise in the women’s movement, there is concern that boys are being overlooked within our public school systems (Mendez). Whereas girls are now taught that they can be scientists, mathematicians and surgeons, boys are hardly taught that it is acceptable, much le ss remarkable, to be poets, artists or teachers. Stereotypes negatively affect 5 boys just as much as they do girls, and the boys deserve a chance to be themselves without the fear of punishment, or at the least, a raised eyebrow. During the early stages o f SS education research, most findings were based on observation of typical co -ed classrooms. The introduction of MRI scans in the late 1980’s promoted a drastic increase in brain research, which contributed greatly to the already social – psychological rese arch that had been done on SS educational environments (Rabinowicz 52). Neurologists Reuwen and Anat Achiron published a study in 2001 that confirmed that sex differences in the brain begin in the womb, and by 26 weeks into pregnancy, the fetus’ brain is permanently transformed into a male or female brain, which can be discerned from a simple ultrasound. Another research team compared brain tissue from both young boys and girls and found that gender differences in the structure of the brain were obvious, especially in babies . The most amazing thing about this study is that the differences are so dramatic that in photographs taken by microscopes, one can easily see those differences with the naked eye (Cordero 47). Neuroscientists at Harvard University publ ished a study in which they tested the brain activity of boys and girls between the ages of 7 and 17. The goal was to examine the physiological ways emotion is processed within the brain. In younger children, emotional activity was centered in the amygdala , the area of the brain where most emotion occurs, and not connected to the cerebral cortex, the part of the brain most responsible for communication (Good 693). While a 7 year old may not be able to tell why he is sad, a 17 year old can go into detail abo ut it without much effort. As a child moves through adolescence, the brain activity associated with emotion slowly moves up into the cerebral cortex, and eventually, emotion and communication become intertwined within the brain. The odd thing is, this emot ional activity only meets the communication area in females. In males, the source of emotional stays fixed in the amygdala, which makes it understandable that a 16 year old boy cannot very well talk about his feelings (Schneider 231). Virginia Tech resear cher Harriet Hanlon found that some areas in the brain mature much faster in boys. Specifically, some of the regions involved in mechanical reasoning, visual targeting and spatial reasoning appeared to mature four to eight years earlier in boys. The parts 6 that handle verbal fluency, handwriting and recognizing familiar faces matured several years earlier in girls. Is it a stretch to believe that if there are physiological and biological differences in the way each gender ’s brains are wired, then maybe each gender should be taught differently to make the most out of their differences? There have been no studies proving that one gender is superior to the other regarding intelligence, simply differences in the way each sex learns. A co -ed environment may also play a huge factor in the way our children learn. A boy at a public high school is usually labeled a “nerd” or a “jock,” and hardly does one ever hear of the star football player earning the rank of valedictorian. Adolescent gender expectations make it dif ficult for boys and girls alike to find out who they are and what they want to do with their lives. If a girl must be a pretty cheerleader to be well -liked, it is safe to assume that most girls would try to fit into that mold during at least some of their school -aged years. It is difficult to imagine learning in an environment where focusing on hair and make -up or intimidation and machissimo are not required to get along and be successful. In single sex education, there are no members of the opposite gender to make students lose focus or be insecure, which helps girls be less intimidated and allows boys to do things they wouldn’t normally do for fear of being labeled a “wuss.” In addition to biological and environmental variations between the sexes, there are many gender stereotypes that still exist. Single sex schools report everything from class sizes to test scores to student’s happiness to the National Association for Single Sex Public Education (NASSPE). Statistics show that all -girls schools are more likely to enroll in classes such as computer science and physics, and participate in competitive sports. Compared to boys in co -ed schools, public or private, boys in all -boys schools are more than twice as likely to study subjects like foreign languages, art, music and drama (NASSPE). All of these findings make it clear that single sex education can easily be far superior than any other school environment. Granted, there are many factors needed to make a great school – brilliant teachers, phenomen al faculty and a strong support base of parents and community members. In order to promote the rise in same sex schools, parents and teachers must recruit the school district’s administration board, and speak out about the advantages of such a 7 wonderful ye t simple system. The PTA is a great way to let voices be heard and to band people together for the same cause. When a large community of parents begins fighting for the children’s future, the education system will see that in order to educate them properly , they first need to understand them. Works Cited “Single Sex vs. Coed: The Evidence.” National Association For Single Sex Public Education . 2006. NASSPE. 14 Dec 2006 < http://www.singlesexschools.org/research - singlesexvscoed.htm>. “Carol Gilligan.” Wi kipedia.Org . 2006. 14 Dec 2006 . Cordero, Maria Elena, Valenzuela, Carlos, Torres, Rafael, And Rodriguez, Angel . “Sexual Dimorphism In Number And Proportion Of Neurons In The Human Median Raphe Nucleus.” Devel opmental Brain Research 124(2000): 43 -52. Good, Catriona D., Johnsrude, Ingrid, Ashburner, John, Henson, Richard N. A., Friston, Karl, And Frackowiak, Richard S. J. . “Cerebral Asymmetry And The Effects Of Sex And Handedness On Brain Structure: A Voxel -Ba sed Morphometric Analysis Of 465 Normal Adult Human Brains.” Neuroimage 14(2001): 685 -700. Hanlon, Harriet, Thatcher, Robert, And Cline, Margaret. “Gender Differences In The Development Of Eeg Coherence In Normal Children.” Developmental Neuropsychology 16(1999): 479 -506. Mendez, Teresa. “Separating The Sexes: A New Direction For Public Education? .” Christian Science Monitor (2004) 14 Dec 2006 . 8 “Nondiscrimination On The Basis Of Sex In Education Prog rams Or Activities Receiving Federal Financial Assistance; Final Rule.” Federal Register . 25 Oct 2006. Department Of Education. 15 Dec 2006 . Rabinowicz, Theodore, Macdonald -Comber Pete tot, Jean, Gartside, Peter, Sheyn, David, Sheyn, Tony, And De Courten -Myers, Gabrielle. “Structure Of The Cerebral Cortex In Men And Women .” Journal Of Neuropathology And Experimental Neurology 61(2002): 46 -57. Schneider, Frank, Habel, Ute, Et Al. “Gender Differences In Regional Cerebral Activity During Sadness.” Human Brain Mapping 9(2000): 226 -238. Full -day Kindergarten should be Available for all Students As concerned and involved parents, along with members of the community we are asking the Tiga rd-Tualatin school board to consider a vote to make full -day kindergarten free for the four Title I elementary schools in our district. Currently, all ten of the elementary schools in the Tigard -Tualatin district offer tuition based full -day kindergarten. For the 2007 -2008 school year the tuition was $2875, which is too expensive for many of the low -income families in our school district. By charging a tuition full -day kindergarten benefits only the wealthy who can afford to pay. Instead, by offering tuitio n free full -day kindergarten to the four Title I elementary schools, you are helping to close the educational gap of the low -income students here in our area. According to the Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory, students who come from low – income fam ilies do not have the same kind of learning opportunities in their non -school hours that other children have. The way the system is currently set, the students receiving the benefits of full -day kindergarten are the ones who need it the least, which is why we are asking you to consider offering free full -day kindergarten to the four Title I elementary schools in our school district. We know you are aware that there have been numerous studies done both nationally and locally showing the importance of full -day kindergarten. Some of the findings from the National 9 Association of the State Boards of Education include higher achievements in math and literacy all the way up to the 3 rd grade, better socialization skills, and higher self -esteem. Susan Castillo the State Superintendent of Public Instruction who promotes full -day kindergarten has said, “when a school district offers full -day kindergarten for low -income students approximately 90% of these students meet grade level benchmarks.” David Douglas school dis trict in Portland recently switched to non -tuition full -day kindergarten and the number of at risk students meeting benchmarks scores doubled. The four Title I elementary schools in our district have received only a Satisfactory rating. If you offer full -day kindergarten at those schools, it can be a positive factor to help the schools strive for an Exceptional rating. We know that you understand the importance of the students’ achievement but knowing how to fund the additional educational time is an impo rtant consideration. The Oregon Department of Education came out with a report on June 25, 2004 that states the estimate of going to full -day kindergarten from half -day kindergarten would have an estimated rise of $1,477 per student for the school year usi ng the Quality Education Model. We are proposing that the schools use their Title I funding to support the majority of the cost, just like what has been done at the Beaverton School District for the past several years and has been proven successful. Accord ing to website of the Oregon Department of Education all of the Title I schools in the Beaverton school district are meeting state requirements and have received a rating of Strong to Exceptional for the 2005 -2006 school year report card. By using the Titl e I funds to offer full – day kindergarten to the Title I elementary schools, the board is helping to make sure all the Tigard -Tualatin students are given the same opportunities for early academic success. We know that our school district spends more per st udent than the state average. The majority of the Title I funds have been used to build a strong elementary literacy program that has a high success rate. Just recently, the University of Oregon has made a large contribution to support this program. In add ition, we know some of the Title I funds have been used for the inclusion program that places special education students in the regular classroom. We feel that by using the majority of the Title I funds, since the other programs have received grants, and instead investing it in full -day kindergarten at the same elementary schools that have the highest literacy concerns, the students will continue to benefit. The success will be apparent in our school district’s state assessment scores. As Susan Castillo sai d, “by not funding full -day kindergarten, the only loser will be the schoolchildren of Oregon.” 10 Another issue is of concern is the need of hiring more teachers. If you decide to switch the Title I elementary schools to full -day kindergarten, an additio nal teacher would need to be hired at each of the four elementary schools. According to the Tigard -Tualatin school district website, the starting salary for a teacher is a little over $31,000 a year. A successful way to cover most of this expense is by usi ng the funds that are no longer required to pay First Students, the independent bus company, for the transfer of the two separate time slots of kindergarten students. By having just a full -day kindergarten class, it eliminates the need for the late morning dropout of the AM kindergarten students and the afternoon pickup of the PM kindergarten students. Each elementary school requires at least five buses to transport the 70 -80 kindergarten students. In 2004, our school district spent $339 per student just on bus transportation. With over 12,000 students in our school district, that is over $4 million a school year! Also not included in the transportation cost is the staffing that is required to oversee the successful transporting of the students. It takes at least five staff members to ensure all the students are safely on the right bus home. Estimates by other schools throughout the nation, such as Danbury, CT which switched to full -day kindergarten have listed transportation savings of over $90,000 a school year. Our school district spends more on transportation than the state average therefore, by switching four elementary schools to full -day kindergarten and placing these students on the same bus schedule as the other elementary grade students our district should notice significant savings. There are other alternatives for funding the difference in cost from other school districts who have adopted a similar program which include blending federal and general funds, or even receiving special grants from the c ommunity members. Just as our elementary literacy program has received grants from the University of Oregon. The city of Lake Oswego has a foundation created just by donations from local businesses and citizens who care about maintaining the high quality o f education their school district offers. Great schools not only benefit the students, but the city as well. Real estate agent Debbie Childs with Windermere stated that most of her buyers who are parents always want to live in an area with a good school di strict, which is why a city like Lake Oswego is so popular in the Portland metro area. Our schools have the possibility to receive outside funding to support the public education if others see that our school district provides outstanding education by givi ng all our students the right start, not just the ones who can afford it. When the community sees our elementary schools scoring higher on assessment 11 tests, more will want to help support our dynamic school district. The start is by you voting to make full -day kindergarten available to our Title I elementary schools. We know this is not an easy decision for the board to make, but all the evidence from the numerous studies to the statistics from various school districts both near and far prove that full day tuition free kindergarten for our four Title I schools will benefit our students by closing the educational gap created from poverty. Let’s give these students the opportunity to be as great as they are capable of being. In addition, full -day kindergarten will raise the Tigard -Tualatin school district ratings, making our city even more attractive to perspective homebuyers. Our city can compete with nearby Lake Oswego boasting a great school district if we work together and make public education a top prior ity in our city. Work Cited Childs, Debbie. Personal Interview. 17 August 2007. Evans, Gene. “Superintendent Castillo Testifies in Favor of Full -Day Kindergarten.” Oregon Department of Education. 13 February, 2007. 14 August, 2007. http://www.ode.state.or.us/news/releases/default.aspx?yr=2007&kw=&rid=534 Hutson, Nancy G. “Committee to Discuss Full -Day Kindergarten.” 9 October 2006. NewsTimesLive.com. 22 August 2 007. Lake Oswego School District Foundation. 2007. 17 August 2007. http://www.losdfoundation.org/ Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory . “Full Day Kindergarten: Exploring an Option for Extended Learning.” 20 December, 2002. 13 August 2007. Oregon Department of Educati on. “AYP and Report Cards Download”. 1998 -2007. Version 2.0.0.7. 16 August 2007. Tigard -Tualatin School District. “Everyth ing you ever wanted to know about Tigard – Tualatin Schools.” 2007. 20 August 2007. 12
Writing homework
Conference Requirements for WR 122 For this course, you are required to submit your first paper for a conference and one of the remaining two papers . In order to complete the conference, you will need to answer the questions below as part of your submission. 1) What did you do well with this draft? 2) What still needs improvement? 3) What areas of the paper assignment are still a little foggy? I will return papers with comments and feedback. In order to co mplete the conference and earn points, you will the need to respond to those comments and discuss what your plans for the paper are before submitting the final assignment for grade. This response might include: 1) Questions about the meaning of my comment s 2) Questions about course concepts essential to successful completion of the paper (ethos, logos, rebuttal, etc) 3) Questions about genera l writing concepts essential to successful completion of the paper (citation, thesis statemen ts, grammar) 4) A personal response to the commen ts 5) Anything else that would benefit from clarification. Please be honest in those responses. That is the best way for me to know what you need to be success ful. These comments should be sent using the interior D2L course e mail system. Generally, your responses will engender some further response from me, which will arrive through the D2L course email system. If you do not submit with questions or respond with comments, you will earn no points for the conference.
Writing homework
Basics of the Proposal Essay Overview  In the proposal, you are asking someone to do something despite the obstacle that are in the way.  A general thesis might be something like: Although there are these obstacles, X group should do THIS THING because A, B, C reasons.  That might mean something like this specifically: Although it will enrage their allies in Russia, the Senator Ron Wyden should continue to support the nuclear missile defense because it is essential to our security, provides jobs, and adds stability to an unstable world. Overview  This proposal must be directed at those who can do what you want to have done.  This might mean you have to change what you want done or to whom you are writing.  Because you are asking someone to do something, your credibility is especially important.  Excellent sources acceptable by your audience are essential.  Respect for your audience is key.  Work to build bridges with the reader, showing common grounds early. How This Paper Is Different  This essay will not necessarily have a thesis at the end of the first paragraph. The guiding principal of the paper is the proposal.  The organization will change depending on what the problem is and what you want to have done.  Formality levels will depend on who is in your audience. Topic Selection  You are strongly encouraged to continue to work with the topic you worked with in the Debate essay.  Otherwise, choose a narrow topic you already know something about.  Local topics are better.  Choose a narrow topic and limit it, as we did with the debate.  There is plenty of research to support even very narrow topics. Major Sections  There should be four major sections in the paper.  Demonstration that the problem is a problem  Your proposal  Demonstration that your proposal will solve the problem  Response to opposition  The organization of these sections and their development levels will vary depending on your topic.  It is your responsibility to discern how much is necessary in each section. Defining “problem”  “Problem” in this sense doesn’t necessarily mean something horrible and terrible.  You might think of a “problem” as an opportunity to do something better.  You might see a way for something going well to go even better, which would work well for this assignment. Demonstrating the problem is a problem.  Some audiences will readily believe the issue you are addressing is a problem; some won’t.  Your first task will be to figure out what your audience thinks of the problem you see.  For example, parking scarcity is generally recognized as problems by students and college officials.  Other problems you see may not be recognized by your audience.  You will have to prove to that audience that the problem is a problem.  Sources can be used in support of the argument that the problem is a problem. Your proposal  Your “thesis” – the guiding principle of the essay – is your proposal here.  It should forecast the structure for the paper.  It may not appear until after you have demonstrated the problem is a problem, which may be pages into the essay.  It should be clear exactly what you want to have happen.  This clarity will be much easier with a narrow proposal. Proving your solution will work  This is perhaps the most important section of the essay and where most of the development will probably occur.  You must prove that your solution will solve the problem.  Students often think that an answer is self – explanatory. It is not.  Focus this section on how it will benefit your audience to follow your proposed solution.  Sources should be used in support of this section.  Arguments by analogy – showing your idea has worked elsewhere – can be particularly compelling. The Opposition  Here, “opposition” means any thing that might get in the way of your proposal coming to fruition.  That might mean direct opposition from others.  That might mean other obstacles.  In general, time and money are the two issues that will have to be addressed in almost every proposal.  Think about why this change has not yet happened, and work to overcome those obstacles.  Research can be used to provide the ideas of the opposition. Organization  How this paper is organized is completely up to you.  You will have to decide how much time to spend in each section and how each section should  What often works well is to present the problem, present your proposal, answer objections/opposition, and then provide proof your solution will work. Using Evidence  Evidence should be reputable and credible, as always  The different here is that it must be credible for your audience.  Evidence can be used to provide the opposition arguments, to provide general background, and to show your solution will work. Appealing to the Audience  Work to establish common ground early with your audience, showing them what you both have to gain.  Shift formality level depending on who your audience is – formal for unknown audiences, less formal for more well -known audiences.  Use sources they will see as reputable.  Show them why they will benefit from enacting your solution. The conclusion  The conclusion here is your last opportunity to summarize your ideas and to make a compelling argument as to why your project should be undertaken.  It is also your last chance to connect with your audience.  Be careful not to fall into fallacies at the conclusion, which can undermine the overall argument. Final Notes:  You are strongly encouraged to work with the same topic as you worked on with the debate.  Consider why this hasn’t been done before when looking for obstacles.  You may need to do additional research for this paper.  Audience, audience, audience. Basics of the Debate Essay