Respond substantially to 2 classmates
- Developing a program to increase the physical levels of college students on a campus would relate to all of the theories mentioned in Chapter 6. The Stages of Change or Transtheoretical Model studies the readiness of an individual to change a certain behavior through five different stages. These different stages are precontemplation, contemplation, decision/determination, action and maintenance (Hodges, Videto, 2011). As the student realizes that there is a problem, or lack of exercise, they will start to take steps towards fixing the issue through the Stages of Change. For this model it can be hypothesized that the reason for a lack of exercise for College students is due to the other behaviors that they are engaged in. The Health Belief Model can suggest that the reason that the physical activity level is so low for college students is because of the way that the students perceive physical activity. If we change the student’s perceptions of it we can help increase the rates for physical activity levels. Through the program we will educate college students on the benefits of maintaining a healthy lifestyle and promote physical activity. The Social Cognitive Theory can defined the low physical activity rates as being a result of reciprocal determinism. Since many of the other students on the college campus environment work out very little, it reduces the chances that other students will involve themselves in physical activity exercises. “According to SCT confidence in one’s ability to engage in a specific behavior, goals, and expectations that the behavior will have positive outcomes are the main contributors to health behavior” (Hodges, Videto, 2011). Through the Stage Theory of Organization Change, we learn how organizations innovate new goals, programs, technologies, and ideas (Hodges, Videto, 2011). This theory knows that this college campus will evolve and adopt this new program through stages and moving from one step to the next will need to consist of diverse strategies. The reason why physical activity levels are so low within the college campus could be from a lack of administration pushing the importance of physical activity. Through Diffusion of Innovations we will learn how new ideas, practices and products spread through a population to help us gain knowledge on the best way to have the students adopt our new program. We will need to make sure our new program is compatible with the college campus. The reason for the lack of physical activity in college based on this model is the idea that no one takes the time to study the best way to incorporate a new program.
- In the FIU Online Library article that I chose to discuss, the target population was Internet Users and was used based on the Health Belief Model. The investigation was done on Cyber-victimization and discusses different preventative behaviors that the target population should do to prevent themselves from becoming victims of this. The theory states that someone engaging in a recommended health action is based predominantly on that individual’s perceptions and so in this program we help to change the perception of all internet users (Hodges, Videto, 2011). Throughout the project they emphasized on the concepts of perceived severity and degree of emotional arousal created by the thought of the threat. Educating Internet users with the severity of the concept of cyber-victimization will help them to use preventative factors and emphasize the reality that it can happen to anyone.
- A Mission Statement describes the organizational culture of the program and helps to provide guidance for program planning, decision-making and all of the programs activities. It is the foundation for all needs assessment and programming efforts. Objectives are written to clearly provide direction in order to achieve all program goals and objectives. Once all of that is completed, it is crucial to evaluate the effectiveness of all objectives to measure the success of the program (Hodges, Videto, 2011).
- Awareness Objective: This program will be dedicated to anyone who feels overwhelmed and stressed and would like to find out all small and productive ways to relieve some of that stress.
- Knowledge Objective: This program will strive to educate and increase the knowledge of the negative effects stress can have on the body and mental well-being of an individual.
- Attitude Objective: Together we will be able to decrease stress-levels for the targeted population and will help them live longer and happier lives.
- Skill Development Objective: One small change we can all make in our lives to reduce stress is to go for a 30 minute walk with a loved one each evening.
- Access Objective: The program will offer a 24 hour phone service to speak with someone whenever you feel stressed out.
- Behavior Objective: Instead of coming home and fighting with our roommate after a long hard day at work, you can try doing things like making dinner today or watching a movie together before bed to help decrease levels of stress you may be feeling.
- Risk reduction objective: Avoiding dangerous or risky behaviors like over-drinking to try and help reduce stress levels can have detrimental health affects on your body.
- Health Status Objective: Together, with the new wellness stress management program we will reduce the levels of stress you feel and help you to find great ways to deal with any stress you may be feeling.
1. The theories discussed in Chapter 6 include Health Belief Model, Stages of Change, Social Cognitive Theory, and Stage theories of organizational change.
Stages of Change concerns the readiness to attempt or change a health behavior (Hodges & Videto, pg. 147, 2011). The five stages are precontemplation, contemplation, decision/determination, action, and maintenance. I think this theory would suggest that the reason college students aren’t engaging in physical activity because they are unaware that there is a problem and don’t have thoughts about changing their activity levels.
Health Belief Model suggests that the likelihood of someone engaging in a recommended health action is based predominately on that individual’s perceptions (Hodges & Videto, pg. 148, 2011). By changing a person’s perception, the chance that the person will act on the health behavior recommendation will increase. This theory may suggest that college undergraduates are behind in physical activity because their perception of their health hasn’t been altered. If student’s aren’t feeling a sense of fear towards their sedentary lifestyle, they won’t change their behavior.
Social Cognitive Theory asserts that a behavior arises from continuous, bidirectional interaction of people and their environment, and that resulting behavior affect people and their environments (Hodges & Videto, pg. 149, 2011). This theory may suggest that college undergraduates lack physical activity because they do not feel they can exercise control over their health behavior, they are not motivated to act or persist through challenges (Hodges & Videto, pg. 149, 2011).
Stage Theory of Organizational Change may suggest that college students aren’t active because there is a problem definition, or awareness, that they have a sedentary lifestyle and need to be more active.
2. The article I found in the FIU Online Library was called “Use of Social Cognitive Theory Variables Across Exercise Stages of Change of Employed Women”. The questionnaire was sent to employed women in hospitals in their payroll envelopes. The purpose of study was to “describe the levels of exercise self-regulation, self efficacy and outcome-expectancy values across Exercise Stages of Change” (Hallam & Umstattd, 2006). They found significant differences between people reporting regular exercise and those who don’t exercise of exercise irregularly.
1. The value of a well written mission statement is to present the idea of the long term impact of the program (Hodges & Videto, pg. 158, 2011). A well written mission statement will provide guidance for the planning and programming activities and efforts. After finishing a mission statement, the development of the programs goals and objectives begin to take place. The program goals and objectives should relate back to the mission statement and use it as a guideline to develop their goals. After creating program goals, program objectives should be written. “Each objective should be in line with a program goal and directly related to reaching that goal” (Hodges and Videto, pg. 167 2011). The mission statement is crucial because each step in the planning process relates back to the focus of the mission statement.
1. Awareness objective: Stress is killing you. Stress increases the risk of heart disease, heart attack and the risk of stroke. Take time out of the day for yourself. You come first.
2. Knowledge Objective: The American Psychological Association describes stress as a feeling of being overwhelmed, worried, run down, upset and anxious. Stress can affect people of every age, both genders, different circumstances which can lead to both physical and psychological health issues (2016). Extreme amounts of stress can have health consequences and adversely affect the immune, cardiovascular, neuroendrocrine and central nervous system (American Psychological Association, 2016)
3. Attitude Objective: Stress management can help you learn how to deal with everyday stress. Stress management skills will help you feel better today and years from now. Stress can lead to heart problems and stroke which can be prevented with the the right stress coping skills.
4. Skill development objective: We can help you achieve the proper stress management skills to help you live a healthier, happier and stress free life.
5. Access objective: We want to help reduce stress in your town. Less stressed environment = less stress for you
6. Behavior objective: 44% of Americans feel more stressed today, than they did 5 years ago. Work stress also causes 10% of strokes.
7. Risk reduction objective: It is imperative Americans learn how to manage stress. Stress is preventable, yet women who work in stressful environments have a 40% increased risk of heart disease, including heart attacks, compared to less stress colleagues (Harvard Health Publications, 2013).
8. Health status objective: Our wellness stress program will help improve the health status of our population. A stress free population is a healthier population.