Based on what we discussed, read and learned in this course, in your own words, please first describe the main features, structure, and content of the Qur’an as a text and the way it has been received, and second, explain what a reciter, in general, learns by reciting the Qur’an’s various verses,

1) Surah Al-Fatiha

2) Surah Baqarah

3) Surah Yaseen

4) Surah Marium

5) Surah Mulk

6) Surah Al- Ahzab

7) Surah An-Nisa

NOTE:

There is no limitation in words or pages for your answer to this question. (Preferable 10 Pages)

Please provide your responses JUST based on what we learned, discussed, and read in this course.

Based on what we discussed, read and learned in this course, in your own words, please first describe the main features, structure, and content of the Qur’an as a text and the way it has been received
The story of Isa (Jesus) We d n e s d a y, M a r c h 1 7 I s a ’s b l e s s e d n a m e is m e n t i o n e d in t h i r t e e n c h a p t e r s of t h e H o l y Q u r ’ a n . In m o s t v e r s e s , h i s n a m e is a s s o c i a t e d w i t h g r e a t n e s s a n d is m e n t i o n e d w i t h t i t l e s s u c h as : A b d u l l a h , t h e w o r d of G o d , t h e S p i r i t of God . In t h e Q u r ‘ a n , t h e n a m e of J e s u s is m e n t i o n e d f o r t y -f i v e t i m e s , w h i c h is m e n t i o n e d in e l e v e n s u r a h ’s w i t h t h e w o r d h e a r t ( ” C h r i s t ” ) . J e s u s (p b u h ) w a s b o r n f i v e h u n d r e d a n d s e v e n t y y e a r s b e f o r e the b i r t h of t h e P r o p h e t of I s l a m (p b u h ) in t h e l a n d of K u f a , by t h e E u p h r a t e s R i v e r . S o m e h a v e s a i d t h a t he w a s b o r n in t h e v i l l a g e of N a z a r e t h or J e r u s a l e m . H i s b i r t h w a s a m i r a c l e a n d it h a p p e n e d by G o d ‘ s p e r m i s s i o n w i t h o u t h a v i n g a f a t h e r . H i s m o t h e r M a r y a m , t h e d a u g h t e r of I m r a n , w a s an e x e m p l a r y w o m a n a n d o n e of t h e p r o m i n e n t p e r s o n a l i t i e s of the c h i l d r e n of I s r a e l . F i n a l l y, M a r y a m , h o l d i n g her c h i l d , m o v e d f r o m t h e d e s e r t to t h e v i l l a g e and w e n t to h e r r e l a t i v e s . S h e t o o k her c h i l d and w e n t to her p e o p l e a n d as s h e p r e d i c t e d , t h e y o p e n e d t h e i r m o u t h s to s l a n d e r a n d s a i d : O M a r y ! Yo u m u s t h a v e done a v e r y s t r a n g e and b a d t h i n g . T h e y r e b u k e d her a n d s a i d : O s i s t e r A a r o n , y o u r f a t h e r w a s n o t a bad p e r s o n , and y o u r m o t h e r w a s n e v e r p o l l u t e d . So, w i t h t h i s f a m i l y o r i g i n a l i t y, w h e r e d i d you b r i n g t h i s c h i l d ? A n d how d i d y o u c o n c e i v e t h i s c h i l d w i t h o u t a h u s b a n d ? At t h i s t i m e ( a c c o r d i n g to t h e p r e v i o u s o r d e r ) M a r y a m w a s s i l e n t a n d h e r only r e a c t i o n w a s to p o i n t to h e r b a b y J e s u s , but t h i s s u r p r i s e d t h e m t h e m o s t a n d s o m e of t h e m c a r r i e d M a r y a m on a m o c k e r y a n d b e c a m e a n g r y a n d s a i d : M a r y a m Wi t h w h a t y o u h a v e d o n e , a r e y o u s t i l l s u b j u g a t i n g your p e o p l e ?! T h e y s a i d to h i m , “ H o w can we t a l k to a c h i l d in a c r a d l e ? ” S u d d e n l y t h e y s a w t h a t t h e c h i l d s p o k e a n d s a i d : I am t h e s e r v a n t of God, he h a s b l e s s e d me w i t h t h e book of h e a v e n a n d h a s m a d e me a p r o p h e t a n d God h a s m a d e me a b l e s s e d c r e a t u r e f o r t h e s e r v a n t s w h e r e v e r I am a n d as l o n g as I l i v e , He h a s r e c o m m e n d e d p r a y e r a n d z a k a t a n d h a s m a d e me v i r t u o u s t o w a r d s my m o t h e r a n d h a s not m a d e me t y r a n n i c a l . M a y God b l e s s me on t h e d a y I w a s b o r n a n d t h e d a y I d i e a n d t h e d a y I am r e s u r r e c t e d a l i v e . W h e n t h e y h e a r d J e s u s s p e a k p l a i n l y, t h e y r e a l i z e d t h a t M a r y w a s c l e a n a n d pure f r o m a l l i m p u r i t y, a n d t h a t J e s u s d i d not s p e a k u n t i l a f t e r s h e h a d g r o w n up a n d r e a c h e d t h e p o i n t of o p e n i n g h e r m o u t h . H i s t o r i a n s , d a t e t h e a g e of J e s u s to t h e a g e of t h i r t y, a n d t h i s is in l i n e w i t h s o m e B i b l e s . S o m e h a v e s a i d t h a t at t h e a g e of t h i r t y, an a n g e l w a s r e v e a l e d to h i m a n d t h e p e r i o d of h i s p r o p h e t h o o d a n d m i s s i o n b e g a n . H o w e v e r, in s o m e n a r r a t i o n s , it is s t a t e d t h a t t h e P r o p h e t s t a t e d h i s p r o p h e t h o o d at t h e a g e of s e v e n or e i g h t . T h e J e w i s h p e o p l e w e r e w a i t i n g for e m e r g i n g of C h r i s t b e f o r e t h e c o m i n g of J e s u s a c c o r d i n g to t h e G o s p e l of M o s e s ; B u t a f t e r h i s a p p e a r a n c e , t h e c o l l e c t i v e i n t e r e s t s of t h e o p p r e s s o r s a n d p e r v e r t s of t h e C h i l d r e n of I s r a e l w e r e j e o p a r d i z e d , a n d o n l y a l i m i t e d p e o p l e s u r r o u n d e d h i m , a n d t h o s e w h o s e p o s i t i o n w e r e e n d a n g e r e d by t h e i n v i t a t i o n of C h r i s t r e f u s e d to a c c e p t t h e d i v i n e l a w s . A f t e r a r e a s o n e d a n d s u ff i c i e n t i n v i t a t i o n , J e s u s r e a l i z e d t h a t s o m e of t h e c h i l d r e n of I s r a e l i n s i s t e d on o p p o s i t i o n a n d s i n a n d d i d not r e f r a i n f r o m a n y d e n i a l or p e r v e r s i o n . T h e r e f o r e , he c r i e d out : “ W h o w i l l s u p p o r t t h e r e l i g i o n of God a n d d e f e n d m e ? ” O n l y a f e w r e s p o n d e d p o s i t i v e l y to t h i s i n v i t a t i o n , t h e s e w e r e t h e pure p e o p l e w h o m t h e Q u r ‘ a n c a l l s t h e “ H o v a r y u n ” ( f o l l o w e r s ) . T h e a p o s t l e s d e c l a r e d t h e i r r e a d i n e s s to h e l p C h r i s t a n d , as t h e Q u r ‘ a n s a y s , “ We a r e G o d ‘ s c o m p a n i o n s , a n d we b e l i e v e in God a n d we t a k e y o u – C h r i s t – as a w i t n e s s to our I s l a m .” A c c o r d i n g to t h e n a r r a t i o n s , t h e d i s c i p l e s w e r e t w e l v e p e o p l e , but t h e i r n a m e s a r e not m e n t i o n e d in I s l a m i c n a r r a t i o n s . T h e J e w s , w i t h t h e c o o p e r a t i o n of s o m e t r e a c h e r o u s C h r i s t i a n s , d e c i d e d to k i l l J e s u s , a n d G o d t h w a r t e d t h e i r p l a n s a n d f r e e d h i s p r o p h e t f r o m t h e i r c l u t c h e s . G o d m e n t i o n s H i s b l e s s i n g on C h r i s t b e f o r e t h i s h a p p e n s : ” J e s u s , I w i l l t a k e y o u and r a i s e y o u up to m y s e l f .“ T h e c o m m e n t a t o r s , q u o t i n g t h e a b o v e v e r s e , h a v e a r g u e d t h a t C h r i s t w a s not k i l l e d , a n d t h a t G o d t o o k h i m to h e a v e n . B u t a c c o r d i n g to t h e B i b l e , C h r i s t i a n s s a y t h a t J e s u s w a s k i l l e d a n d b u r i e d , t h e n r o s e f r o m t h e d e a d , w a s on e a r t h f o r a s h o r t t i m e , a n d t h e n a s c e n d e d to h e a v e n . It is c e r t a i n to us t h a t t h e J e w s c o u l d not a r r e s t J e s u s a n d t h a t G o d A l m i g h t y r a i s e d h i m to h e a v e n . T h e y a r r e s t e d a n o t h e r p e r s o n w h o l o o k e d l i k e t h a t I m a m a n d h a n g e d h i m , a n d w h a t e v e r t h a t p e r s o n s h o u t e d t h a t I w a s n o t J e s u s , t h e y d i d not a c c e p t a n d h a n g e d h i m . B u t t h e r e is a d i f f e r e n c e in w h o t h a t p e r s o n w a s . M a n y h a v e s a i d t h a t he w a s t h e s a m e J u d a s I s c a r i o t w h o , w h e n he e n t e r e d t h e h i d i n g p l a c e of J e s u s , b e c a m e l i k e h i m a n d w a s h a n g e d . S o m e h a v e s a i d : He w a s t h e s a m e o f f i c e r w h o e n t e r e d t h e p l a c e a n d w h a t e v e r he e x a m i n e d he d i d n o t s e e J e s u s a n d w h e n he c a m e o u t , he l o o k e d l i k e J e s u s a n d o t h e r s w h o w e r e w a i t i n g for h i m o u t s i d e c a m e to a r r e s t h i m a n d h a n g h i m .
Based on what we discussed, read and learned in this course, in your own words, please first describe the main features, structure, and content of the Qur’an as a text and the way it has been received
MUHKAMAT &MUTASHABIHAT FRIDAY FEB 5, 2021FRIDAY FEB 5, 2021 CATEGORICAL ( MUHKAMAT ) ALEGORICAL (MUTASHABIHAT ) • T he categorical and the allegorical, in fact, relates to whether a certain text lends itself to being understood by human beings or not. All the other divisions really pertain to how that text is to be understood and whether it is to be currently applied or not. • The categorical verses are generally viewed as those verses whose meanings are explicit and/or have a legal significance whereas the allegorical are viewed as those verses where the meaning is obscure or inexplicable. THE MOST GRACIOUS, ESTABLISHED ON THE THRONE. Why Some of Qur’an’s verses are allegorical ? • The Qur’an was revealed within a particular historical situation over a period of time and in response to specific needs. • The words and phrases used in human conversations are created only for everyday needs, and for this reason, as soon as we step out of the confines of human material life, for example, we talk about the Creator, who is infinite in every way. We clearly see that our words are not the format of those meanings and we have to use words that are deficient in various ways, these word deficiencies are the source of a significant part of the similarities of the Qur’an. • Concepts like the other world, or supernatural subjects are far from our horizons of thought, and we are unable to comprehend their depth due to our confinement in the prison of time and space. S uch as some verses related to the Day of Judgment. • Example: Like if you want to explain the world to a baby living in the embryonic world. If you do not say a word, it shows that you are hiding the truth, and if you do say it, you will have to say it implicitly, because the baby in this circumstance does not have more ability to understand. • T he application of thoughts and ideas and the creation of intellectual movement in human being. It likes a complex intellectual issue that is designed to strengthen the thoughts of thinkers. • These verses in the Qur’an illuminates the human’s great need for divine leaders and the Prophet and his guardians, and causes human being to refer to them and recognize their leadership in practice, and also in other sciences and guidance. For example, the explanation of some issues in textbooks is left to the teacher and so that the students do not cut off their relationship with the teacher and inspired by the teacher’s thoughts.
Based on what we discussed, read and learned in this course, in your own words, please first describe the main features, structure, and content of the Qur’an as a text and the way it has been received
EXEGESIS OF THE QUR’AN M O N D A Y F E B 2 2 , 2 0 2 1 • Which time period we are talking about: Second Hijri/ Eight CE The Hijri year or era at – taqwīm al – hijrī is the era used in the Islamic lunar calendar, which begins its count from the Islamic New Year in 622 CE. SUNNI EXEGESIS: • Meaning: A Sunni is a member of the largest branch of Islam. A Sunni is a Muslim who believes that the caliph Abu Bakr was the rightful successor to Muhammad after his death. In Arabic, the word Sunni means “lawful,” and its root can be found in Sunna, “the traditional teachings of Muhammad,” or “way, course, or teachings.“ • It is commonly said that the first Sunnī exegetical corpus based upon traditions is the commentary of al -Ṭabarī, but there were several others before him at the end of the second/eighth and the beginning of the third/ninth century. For example, Yaḥyā b. Sallām al – Baṣrī (d. 200/815 in Egypt). He interested himself in qur ’ānic readings, along with the occasions of revelation, ḥadīth and the exegetical traditions of Iraq, Mecca, and Medina, and is said to have shared the Murji ’ite conception of faith: • Murji’ite: Murji’ah held the opinion that God alone has the right to judge whether or not a Muslim has become an apostate. Consequently, Muslims should practice postponement (ʾirjāʾ ) of judgment on committers of major sins and not make charges of disbelief (’takfir’ ) or punish accordingly anyone who has professed Islam to be their faith. SHIITE EXEGESIS a member of one of the two great religious divisions of Islam that regards Ali, the son -in -law of Muhammad, as the legitimate successor of Muhammad, and disregards the three caliphs who succeeded him. • There is no fundamental difference between Shiite and Sunni commentaries, as both groups have interpreted the Qur’an using different methods and tendencies, but what distinguishes Shiite commentaries from Sunni commentaries is that Is interpretive sources; Because in the sources of interpretation, there is a major difference between Shiites and Sunnis. • Since the Sunnis, after the death of the Prophet Muhammad did not believe in the Imamate of the Imams, therefore, the commentators followed the second caliph and said: “The Qur’an itself is sufficient for us”. • In opposite side, in Shiite, Muslims believed in the Imamate of the Imams, therefore, the commentators followed their way of understanding and interpreting the Qur’an. ISMA’ILITES EXEGESIS: • The Ismā’īlites make a fundamental distinction in religion and knowledge between the exterior ( ẓāhir ) and the interior ( bāṭin ), a distinction also reflected in their interpretation of the Qur’ān. The science of tafsīr (exoteric exegesis) is absent from their literature, since true meaning can be obtained only through ta ’wīl (esoteric interpretation), which originates in the legitimate Imām . Hence, the Imām is often called “the speaking Qur’ān” Qur ’ān -i nāṭiq ), while the book itself is called “the silent Qur’ān” (Qur ’ān -i ṣāmit ). This arrangement corresponds to the distinction between the hidden, spiritual meaning of scripture explained by the Imām (ta ’wīl ) and the divine message delivered by the Prophet in its literal form (tanzīl , descent). Even the physical objects mentioned by the Qur’ān are to receive an esoteric interpretation.
Based on what we discussed, read and learned in this course, in your own words, please first describe the main features, structure, and content of the Qur’an as a text and the way it has been received
The Story of Virgin Mary • Monday March, 15 • Mariam is the mother of Jesus (PBU H ) who was miraculously got pregnant without a husband . • Mariam, the mother of Isa is venerated in Islam . Her parents are mentioned as Imran and Hannah and her sibling is Harun . She is one of the most important and righteous women in Islam . She is mentioned in the Quran more than in the New Testament (Bible ). Her name is mentioned thirty -four times in the Qur ’an . • Surah Mariam – 19 :1 |Quran .com . • She is the only woman mentioned by name in the Quran . Many Muslim women look up to her as an example . According to the Quran, Allah (God) chose Mary above all women of all nations .The Quran states : • Behold! the angels said : “O Mary! Allah hath chosen thee and purified thee – chosen thee above the women of all nations . Quran , sura 3 (Al Imran ), ayah 42 . • The word “Mariam” means a devout woman, and also a servant woman . • The Qur ’an says that Mariam grew up in the temple of prayer and had a special place of her own in the temple . The Qur ’an states that there was a cast of the dice to decide who would become the guardian of Mariam . The person chosen through this process was the Prophet Zechariah . Often, when Zechariah would visit the chamber of Mary, he would find her with quantities of food . He always asked her where she had obtained the food, and Mary would always answer : “Allah provides to whom he will .” As a prophet, Zechariah would not have questioned this response because he would have known that Allah is the provider of all things in life and, indeed, of life itself . • The birth of Isa and the Annunciation of Mariam are very important to Islam . They are considered to be some of the most important miracles of Allah . The first mention of the Annunciation following the Birth of Isa is in sura 19 (Mariam ) ayah 20 . The Qur ’an tells us that the Angel Gabriel (Arabic : al -Ruh al -Quds, Jibra ’il ) came to the Mariam and told her that she would soon be pregnant with a holy child . The Virgin Mary asked how it would be possible for her to become pregnant when no man had touched her . The Angel Gabriel replied that nothing is impossible for Allah, and that the Birth of Jesus would be a sign for all mankind . The birth is mentioned later at surah 66 (At -Tahrim ) ayah 12 , where the Qur ’an says that the Virgin Mary remained pure while Allah created Isa inside her womb . The Qur ’an ’s narrative of the birth of Isa is different from that of Jesus as found in the New Testament . The Qur ’an says that Mary was suffering childbirth pains, when she saw a nearby palm tree and held on to it . While she was holding on to the tree, she heard a voice that seemed to come from the earth beneath the tree . The voice said, “Grieve not! Thy Lord hath provided a rivulet beneath thy feet . Shake the trunk of the palm -tree towards thyself and It will drop its fresh ripe dates upon thee .” Mary then promised not to speak with anyone that day . Later, after Isa ’s birth, Mary brought him to the temple . All of the men in the temple mocked her, except Zechariah, who believed in the virgin birth . The Israelites demanded to know how she could possibly have had a baby without a man, whereupon the Virgin Mary responded by pointing to Jesus who then spoke his first prophecy . Surah Maryam – 19 :1 | Quran .com (25 ) What are Differences between Virgin Mary in New Testament and the Qur ’an? • Class Discussion
Based on what we discussed, read and learned in this course, in your own words, please first describe the main features, structure, and content of the Qur’an as a text and the way it has been received
The Qur’an as Written Words • The Qur’an for Muslims continues to function as both a written text ( mus – haf ) and an oral one (al -qur’an ) with an organic relationship between these two modes. • Qur’an is essentially evocative to Muslims and that it is often informative through its being evocative: invitation to think, try to find your own story in the Qur’anic Stories. Try to find your Yousuf, Your Maryam. Think. Think. Division of the Qur’an Ayat: • A collection of ayat , usually separated from each other by the occurrence of rhythm, rhyme or assonance, comprise a surah. • the Qur’an as well as every component of it are signs of the presence of God in the world. • Surah • 1. Different goals and different topics in the Qur’an : In many suras, there is a specific goal that is the focus of all the verses of that surah. Some commentators even believe that each surah pursues a specific goal. This special purpose has put the relevant verses together in the form of a surah; For example, Surah Yusuf or Naml or Elephant, etc. is the story of a prophet or a historical event. • 2. Easy to learn, recite and memorize the Qur’an : Dividing and distinguishing between chapters makes teaching and learning easier for seekers and enthusiasts of the word of God and they after learning a part of the word of God or memorizing it, as one who goes through one of the stages of happiness and succeed in conquering it, they become more eager than other parts of the Qur’an . As the Qur’an reciter completes one surah, he/she becomes more interested in starting another surah . This is especially evident in the memorization of the Qur’an ; Because dividing the Qur’an into small and large pieces and chapters has solved the problem of memorization, and if it were not so, the motivation to memorize the Qur’an would be less and it would be more difficult to memorize it . 3 . Preservation of the Qur’an from distortion and falsification : One of the artists of the Qur’an and its miraculous aspects is the division of the book into independent parts called Surahs . This made it easy to memorize them, especially the Meccan surahs, which were small and rhythmic surahs at the beginning of the revelation, and at least every Muslim archives some of these surahs in his memory . 4 . Incomparability even in the smallest surah : The division of the Qur’an into surahs whose verses are very different in verse is another interesting phenomenon ; Because the Qur’an, which in the verses of “challenge” has invited everyone to fight, so that if they can bring even one surah like the Qur’an, by dividing it into small and large surahs, has pointed out the fact that the length and shortness of surahs is not a condition of miracles . Every surah, no matter how small, is at the peak of miracles and greatness The Disjointed Letters • Some Muslims hold that these were simply letters of the alphabet used to draw the Prophet’s attention to the impending revelation . (These letters are thus invoked as alternative names for the Prophet, since God used them to draw his attention .) Others suggest that these words are abbreviations of actual words or phrases relating to God and His attributes . The endless possibilities resulting from this kind of speculation have led the vast majority of Muslims to conclude that they may have some kind of deeply spiritual meaning accessible only to those who walk the path of fellowship with God . Most conclude though that “they are meant to illustrate the inimitable, wondrous nature of the Qur’anic revelation which though originating in a realm beyond the reach of human perception (al -ghayb ) can be conveyed to man by means of the very sounds (represented by letters) of ordinary human speech” (Esack , 62 ). In every single surah where these letters appear, the immediate subsequent reference is some form of revelation using words such as “ wahi ” (revelation), “ tanzil ” (descent) or “kitab” (the book) suggesting that they had far more to do with the act of revelation itself, drawing attention to it or evoking responses to it . • Critical text scholars have also forwarded several theories about the origins of these letters, all of them suggesting that the letters are external to the text and were later additions . Some of these theories include the idea that they were initials denoting the names of the scribes or that they are abbreviations for disused names of the surahs .