I have attached the Partner paper that has to be related to this assignment,
I also attached the Rubric for this assignment.
Writing viable arguments is often based on how well we understand the arguments made by others, in this case our classmates. Summarizing arguments leads to better understanding for readers and also helps authors see how someone unfamiliar with the topic receives her/his argument. If the summary of our partner does not match what we hope they take away from our paper, then we can see specifically what parts of our argument are weak and what we need to improve as we work toward our final papers.
For this assignment you will need to find your review partner, download or read her/his Toulmin essay, and then write a one-page, single-spaced summary of the main argument. Your essay should have a clear introduction, a body (in which you detail the author’s argument) and a conclusion that summarizes the author’s main points. Please be specific in your analysis and write it in a formal, scholarly tone.
For examples, please look at the UMN Writing Center at:
http://www.tc.umn.edu/~jewel001/CollegeWriting/WRITEREAD/Summary/samples.htm (Links to an external site.)
One-page, single-spaced analysis of your partner’s Toulmin Argument
12-Point Times New Roman Font
“History of Aviation the Wright Brothers” Claim: Wright Brothers started the history of aviation. Reasons: Bishop Wright one day brought Wilburn and Orville Wright a small toy helicopter that was made up of wood and two curled rubber bands as a small propeller. Both the brothers played with it until it broke. After that, they made new copies of toys themselves. They also sold their toys to their friends. So it developed an interest of flying in them. Wright Brothers started the printing business in 1889 together but after 3 years they started the business of bicycle. They started selling repaired bikes initially. They establish their own brand in 1896. By working on bikes Wright Brothers generated an idea of flight. They used the technology about which they got knowledge from bicycles on airplanes. That technology included spoke wires, sprockets, chains, and ball bearings. From bicycles they learned to balance and control their aircraft. Orville and Wilburn Wright performed different experiments to fulfill their dream of inventing an aircraft. They also learned different techniques to control aircraft such as they realized the need of 3 axes of motions. Orville and Wilbur got this idea from the flying bird. They saw the birds twisting and curving their wings. They also performed Kite/glider Experiments. In 1899 the Wright Brothers began their research on aeronautical research. They used to test their notions of aircraft with a small kite having a five-foot wingspan. They built a machine in 1900 that carry a pilot in it. Their 1900 aircraft was not that successful so they flew it as a kite and collected information to improve the functioning of their machine. Assumptions: Innovators made several assumptions about the development of flight. Since all the animals that fly have wings so innovators though of developing strap on wings. To test their assumption they would have to jump from the tall building. Some other innovators built flying machines and took years to build costly prototypes. All of them failed during the testing process. The modern innovators can learn from the approaches adopted by Wright Brothers. The Wright Brothers were flawless experimenters. They adopted simple and low-risk ways to test their assumptions. Wright Brother flew kites to test their assumptions. The Innosight advised a big consumer product company to deliver a device to centralized points on campuses. The business plans were assumed to take 3 months to get approval to sell their devices at school. They could pilot the idea at dew schools. But school slowly processes that approval because they assumed to approach it differently. Backing: As Wright Brothers started their aeronautical research in 1899, the first aircraft they flew was a kite. Their first experiment did not produce less lift than expected. They tested small wing model to simulate flight conditions. The wind tunnel they used was a box that had a fan with mounted wings attached on a particular balance inside a tunnel. By using that device, Wright brothers design the wings of gliders and powerful aircraft that would carry them into the air for flight. They got the information on satisfactory wing shape. Wright brothers discovered the wing warping through gliders test that formed an unequal drag alongside the two wings. As a result, they developed a direct linkage between the warping system and the radar. The design was successful and Wrights were ready to move on the nest step that was powered aircraft. In 1903, the flyer took off on its own power where Orville was flying. After flying for 12 seconds it covered a distance of 37 meters. Orville and Wilbur took three more flights on that day. The fourth flight was the longest one which traveled 260 meters in the duration of 59 seconds. After their success in North, Caroline Wright brothers continued with their experiments on flying. Conditions of Rebuttal: The critics of Wright brothers call their photos the Lost Flights of the Wright Brothers as none of their photo got published ever. The European aviators criticized Wright Aircraft and call their forward elevator as unstable. The Wright Aircraft gallop as compare to other aircraft and pilot tried to maintain their attitude. (Wright-brothers.org) Moreover, some new evidence suggests that a German immigrant flew 2 years before Wright’s Brother took off their flight at Kitty Hawk. Today a growing number of aviation experts deny the history of Wright Brothers. The first flight of an n airplane was made by the German immigrants Gustave Whitehead in Connecticut before 2 years. However, its photo is blurry. ( ZENNIE, 2013) Qualifier: History has revealed that history of aircraft begins with the Wright brothers. The evidence in the favor of Gustave Whitehead is small in number as compare to those of Wright Brothers. However, there are a number of photos of Wright Brothers flying while there is none a single photo as an evidence for Gustave Whitehead’s first light. (Crouch, 2013) References ZENNIE, M. (2013, March 14 ). Is history wrong about the Wright Brothers? New evidence suggests German immigrant flew TWO YEARS before pioneers took off at Kitty Hawk. daily mail. Brunson , A. (2002, Jul 19). HISTORY CHANNEL FILMS WRIGHT FLYER PROJECT. The Herald Journal . Centennial of Flight. (n.d.). The Wright Way:The Process of Invention. NASA. Crouch, T. (2013, Mar 18). Air and Space Curator: The Wright Brothers Were Most Definitely the First in Flight. Smithsonian.com. Wright-brothers.org. (n.d.). The Lost Flights of the Wright’s Brothers. Retrieved Mar 03, 2017, from http://www.wright-brothers.org/History_Wing/Aviations_Attic/Lost_Flights/Lost_Flights.htm