see attached

417

Name _____________________________________________

Date _______________________________________________

Section _____________________________________________

The A corresponds to the indicated Learning Outcome(s) O

found at the beginning of the Laboratory Exercise.

Ear and Equilibrium

PART A: Assessments
Complete the following statements:

1. The organs of static equilibrium are located within two expanded chambers within the vestibule called the

and the saccule. A1

2. All of the balance organs are found within the bone of the skull. A1

3. Otoliths are small grains composed of . A1

4. Sensory impulses travel from the organs of equilibrium to the brain on vestibular neurons of the

nerve. A1

5. The sensory organ of a semicircular duct lies within a small elevation called the . A1

6. The sensory organ within the ampulla of a semicircular duct is called a . A1

7. The of this sensory organ consists of a dome-shaped gelatinous cap. A1

8. The vestibular cortex in the of the brain processes awareness of body position and movement. A1

PART B: Tests of Equilibrium Assessments
1. Vision and equilibrium test results:

a. When the eyes are open, what sensory organs provide information needed to maintain equilibrium? A2

b. When the eyes are closed, what sensory organs provide such information? A2

LABORATORY

ASSESSMENT

38

418

2. Romberg test results:

a. Record the test results in the following table: A3

Conditions Maximal Movement (cm)

Back toward board, eyes open

Back toward board, eyes closed

Side toward board, eyes open

Side toward board, eyes closed

b. Did the test subject’s unsteadiness increase when the eyes were closed? What is the significance of

this observation? A2

c. Why would you expect a person with impairment of the organs of equilibrium to become more unsteady when the

eyes are closed? A2

3. Bárány test results:

a. Record the test results in the following table: A3

Position of Head Description of Eye Movements Time for Movement to Cease

Tilted 30° forward

Tilted 90° onto shoulder

Tilted forward, chin on chest

b. Summarize the results of this test. A3

CRITICAL THINKING ASSESSMENT

What additional sensory information would you expect persons with impairment of organs of equilibrium to use to

supplement their relative lack of some sensory information? A2

________________________________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________________________

407

Name _____________________________________________

Date _______________________________________________

Section _____________________________________________

The A corresponds to the indicated Learning Outcome(s) O

found at the beginning of the Laboratory Exercise.

LABORATORY

ASSESSMENT

37
Ear and Hearing

PART A: Assessments

1. Identify the features of the ear indicated in figures 37.9 and 37.10.

Outer ear Middle ear Inner ear

9

6

8

7

5

4

3

2

1

FIGURE 37.9 Label the structures associated with the ear. A1

408

2. Label the structures indicated in the micrograph of the spiral organ in figure 37.11.

1

5

4

3

2

Stapes

Terms:

Cochlea

Oval window

Semicircular duct

Vestibule

Vestibulocochlear nerve

FIGURE 37.10 Identify the features indicated on this removable part of an ear model, using the terms provided. A1

© J & J Photography

5

4

3

2

Endolymph

Perilymph

1

Terms:

Basilar membrane

Cochlear duct

Hair cells

Scala tympani

Tectorial membrane

FIGURE 37.11 Label the structures associated with this spiral organ region of a cochlea, using the terms

provided. (400×). A1

© Ed Reschke/Getty Images

409

PART B: Assessments

Number the following structures (1–9) to indicate their respective positions in relation to the pathway of the sound vibrations.

Assign number 1 to the most superficial portion of the outer ear. A2

Auricle (air vibrations within)

External acoustic meatus (air vibrations within)

Basilar membrane of spiral organ within cochlea

Hair cells of spiral organ

Incus

Malleus

Oval window

Stapes

Tympanic membrane

PART C: Assessments

Match the terms in column A with the descriptions in column B. Place the letter of your choice in the space

provided. A1 A3

Column A Column B

a. Bony labyrinth

b. Cochlear duct

c. External acoustic meatus

d. Malleus

e. Membranous labyrinth

f. Pharyngotympanic (auditory) tube

g. Scala tympani

h. Scala vestibuli

i. Stapes

j. Tectorial membrane

k. Tympanic cavity

l. Tympanic membrane (eardrum)

1. Auditory ossicle attached to tympanic membrane

2. Air-filled space containing auditory ossicles within middle ear

3. Contacts hairs of hearing receptors

4. Leads from oval window to apex of cochlea and contains perilymph

5. S-shaped tube leading to tympanic membrane

6. Tube within cochlea containing spiral organ and endolymph

7. Cone-shaped, semitransparent membrane attached to malleus

8. Auditory ossicle attached to oval window

9. Chambers containing endolymph within bony labyrinth

10. Bony chambers of inner ear in temporal bone

11. Connects middle ear and pharynx

12. Extends from apex of cochlea to round window and contains perilymph

410

PART D: Assessments

1. Results of auditory acuity test: A4

Ear Tested Audible Distance (cm)

Right

Left

2. Results of sound localization test: A4

Actual Location Reported Location

Front of the head

Behind the head

Above the head

Right side of the head

Left side of the head

3. Results of experiments using tuning forks: A4

Test Left Ear (Normal or Impaired) Right Ear (Normal or Impaired)

Rinne

Weber

4. Summarize the results of the hearing tests you conducted on your laboratory partner. A4

397

Name _____________________________________________

Date _______________________________________________

Section _____________________________________________

Visual Tests and Demonstrations

PART A: Assessments

1. Visual acuity test results: A1

Eye Tested Acuity Values

Right eye

Right eye with glasses (if applicable)

Left eye

Left eye with glasses (if applicable)

2. Astigmatism test results: A1

Eye Tested Darker Lines

Right eye

Right eye with glasses (if applicable)

Left eye

Left eye with glasses (if applicable)

3. Accommodation test results: A1

Eye Tested Near Point (cm)

Right eye

Right eye with glasses (if applicable)

Left eye

Left eye with glasses (if applicable)

The A corresponds to the indicated Learning Outcome(s) O

found at the beginning of the Laboratory Exercise.

LABORATORY

ASSESSMENT

36

398

4. Color vision test results: A1

Males Females

Condition
Class
Number

Class
Percentage

Expected
Percentage

Class
Number

Class
Percentage

Expected
Percentage

Normal color
vision

93 99.6

Deficient red-
green color
vision

7 0.4

Protanopia
(lack red-
sensitive
cones)

less-frequent
type

less-frequent
type

Deuteranopia
(lack green-
sensitive
cones)

more-frequent
type

more-frequent
type

5. Complete the following:

a. What is meant by 20/70 vision? A2

b. What is meant by 20/10 vision? A2

c. What visual problem is created by astigmatism? A2

d. Why does the near point of accommodation often increase with age? A2

e. Describe the eye defect that causes color-deficient vision. A2

PART B: Assessments

1. Blind-spot results: A3

a. Right eye distance

b. Left eye distance

2. Complete the following:

a. Explain why an eye has a blind spot. A3

b. Describe the photopupillary reflex. A3

399

c. What difference did you note in the size of the pupils when one eye was exposed to bright light and the other eye was

shielded from the light? A3

d. Describe the accommodation pupillary reflex. A3

e. Describe the convergence reflex. A3

3. Summarize the vision of the person tested based upon the visual tests and demonstrations conducted in this laboratory

exercise. Include information on suspected structural defects, genetic disorders, and aging conditions. A4

NOTES

385

The A corresponds to the indicated Learning Outcome(s) O

found at the beginning of the Laboratory Exercise.

Name _____________________________________________

Date _______________________________________________

Section _____________________________________________

LABORATORY

ASSESSMENT

35
Eye Structure

PART A: Assessments

Identify the features of the eye indicated in figures 35.12 and 35.13. A1

2

7

3

Pupil

6

5

4

1

FIGURE 35.12 Label the structures in the sagittal section of the eye.

386

2

1
4

5

6

7

3

(contents)

(contents)

___ Aqueous humor

___ Cornea

___ Iris

___ Lens

___ Optic nerve

___ Sclera/outer layer

___ Vitreous humor

FIGURE 35.13 Sagittal section of the eye (5×). Identify the numbered features by placing the correct numbers in the spaces

provided.

© Kage Mikrofotografie/Medical Images

387

PART B: Assessments

Match the terms in column A with the descriptions in column B. Place the letter of your choice in the space provided.

A1 A2

Column A Column B

a. Aqueous humor

b. Choroid

c. Ciliary muscles

d. Conjunctiva

e. Cornea

f. Iris

g. Lacrimal gland

h. Optic disc

i. Retina

j. Sclera

k. Suspensory ligament

l. Vitreous humor

1. Posterior five-sixths of middle (vascular) layer

2. White part of outer (fibrous) layer

3. Transparent anterior portion of outer layer

4. Inner lining of eyelid

5. Secretes tears

6. Fills posterior cavity of eye

7. Area where optic nerve exits the eye

8. Smooth muscle that controls the pupil size and light entering the eye

9. Fills anterior and posterior chambers of the anterior cavity of the eye

10. Contains photoreceptor cells called rods and cones

11. Connects lens to ciliary body

12. Cause lens to change shape

Complete the following:

13. List the structures and fluids through which light passes as it travels from the cornea to the retina. A3

14. List three ways in which rods and cones differ in structure or function. A2 __________________________________

388

PART C: Assessments

Complete the following: A4

2

3

4

5

1

___ Ciliary body

___ Lens

___ Retina

___ Sclera

___ Tapetum fibrosum

(of choroid)

FIGURE 35.14 Partial frontal cut of dissected cow eye. Label the internal structures using the list provided.

© McGraw-Hill Education/Cynthia Prentice-Craver

389

CRITICAL THINKING ASSESSMENT

A strong blow to the head might cause the retina to detach. From observations made during the eye dissection, explain

why this can happen. A1 A4

1. Which layer/tunic of the eye was the most difficult to cut? A4

2. What kind of tissue do you think is responsible for this quality of toughness? A4

3. How do you compare the shape of the pupil in the dissected eye with your own pupil? A4

4. Where was the aqueous humor in the dissected eye? A4

5. What is the function of the dark pigment in the choroid? A2

6. Describe the lens of the dissected eye. A4

7. Describe the vitreous humor of the dissected eye. A4

NOTES

373

Name _____________________________________________

Date _______________________________________________

Section _____________________________________________

The A corresponds to the indicated Learning Outcome(s) O

found at the beginning of the Laboratory Exercise.

Smell and Taste

PART A: Assessments

Complete the following statements:

1. The distal ends of the olfactory neurons are covered with hairlike _______________________. A1

2. Before gaseous substances can stimulate the olfactory receptors, they must be dissolved in _______________________

that surrounds the cilia. A1

3. The axons of olfactory receptors pass through small openings in the ______________________ of the ethmoid bone. A2

4. The primary olfactory cortex for interpreting smell is located in the _______________________ of the cerebrum. A2

5. Olfactory sensations usually fade rapidly as a result of _______________________. A1

6. A chemical would be considered _______________________ if a person lacks a particular receptor site on the cilia of the

olfactory neurons. A1

PART B: Sense of Smell Assessments

1. Record the results (as +, if recognized; as 0, if unrecognized) from the tests of odor recognition in the following table: A3

Substance Tested

O D O R R E P O R T E D

First Trial Second Trial

2. Record the results of the olfactory sensory adaptation time in the following table: A3

Substance Tested Adaptation Time in Seconds

LABORATORY

ASSESSMENT

34

374

3. Complete the following:

a. How do you describe your partner’s ability to recognize the odors of the substances you tested? A1

b. Compare your experimental results with those of others in the class. Did you find any evidence to indicate that

individuals may vary in their ability to recognize odors? Explain your answer. A1

CRITICAL THINKING ASSESSMENT

Does the time it takes for sensory adaptation to occur seem to vary with the substances tested? Explain your answer. A3

PART C: Assessments

Complete the following statements:

1. Taste is interpreted in the _______________________ of the cerebrum. A2

2. The opening to a taste bud is called a _______________________. A4

3. The _______________________ of a taste cell are its sensitive part. A4

4. The facial, _______________________, and vagus cranial nerves conduct impulses related to the sense of taste. A2

5. Substances that stimulate taste cells bind with _______________________ sites on the surfaces of taste hairs. A4

6. Sour receptors are mainly stimulated by _______________________. A4

7. Salt receptors are mainly stimulated by ionized inorganic _______________________. A4

8. Alkaloids usually have a _______________________ taste. A4

375

PART D: Sense of Taste Assessments

1. Taste receptor distribution. Record a + to indicate where a taste sensation seemed to originate and a 0 if no sensation

occurred when the spot was stimulated. A5

Sucrose (sweet sensation)

Acetic acid (sour sensation)

NaCI (salty sensation)

Quinine (bitter sensation)

MSG (umami sensation)

2. Complete the following:

a. Describe how each type of taste receptor is distributed on the surface of your partner’s tongue. A5

b. Describe other locations inside the mouth where any sensations of sweet, salty, sour, bitter, or umami were located. A5

376

c. How does your taste distribution map on the tongue compare to those of other students in the class? A5

3. Identify the structures associated with a taste bud in figure 34.6. A4

6

4

5

3

2

1

Epithelial tissue of tongue

Sensory nerve fibers

Supporting cells

Taste hair (microvillus)

Taste pore

Taste receptor cells

FIGURE 34.6 Label this diagram of structures associated with a taste bud by placing the correct numbers in the spaces

provided.

363

The A corresponds to the indicated Learning Outcome(s) O

found at the beginning of the Laboratory Exercise.

Name _____________________________________________

Date _______________________________________________

Section _____________________________________________

LABORATORY

ASSESSMENT

33
General Senses

PART A: Receptors and General Senses Assessments
Complete the following statements:

1. Whenever tissues are damaged, _______________________ receptors are likely to be stimulated. A1

2. Receptors that are sensitive to temperature changes are called _______________________. A1

3. A sensation may seem to fade away when receptors are continuously stimulated as a result of _______________________

adaptation. A1

4. Tactile (Meissner’s) corpuscles are responsible for the sense of light _______________________. A1

5. Lamellated (Pacinian) corpuscles are responsible for the sense of deep _______________________. A1

6. _______________________ receptors are most sensitive to temperatures between 25°C (77°F) and 45°C (113°F). A1

7. _______________________ receptors are most sensitive to temperatures between 10°C (50°F) and 20°C (68°F). A1

8. Widely distributed sensory receptors throughout the body are associated with _______________________ senses

in contrast to special senses. A1

PART B: Touch (Tactile) Localization Assessments

1. Record the localization error for each area of the body you tested. A2

A R E A O F B O DY T E S T E D E R R O R O F L O C A L I Z AT I O N ( M M )

First Test Second Test Average

Fingertip

Palm

Back of hand

Back of neck

Forearm

Leg

2. Answer the following questions:

a. What body area tested had the smallest error of localization?

What body area tested has the largest error of localization?

What is your interpretation of these results?

A2

364

b. Compare your measurement results of the first test to those of the second test of each body area. Did your ability

to localize the touch improve or deteriorate?

Predict the outcome if you were to do a third test on each body area and explain your reasoning.

A2

PART C: Two-Point Threshold Assessments

1. Record the two-point threshold in millimeters for skin in each of the following regions: A3

Area of Body Tested Two-Point Threshold (mm)

Fingertip

Palm

Back of hand

Back of neck

Forearm

Leg

2. Answer the following questions:

a. What region of the skin tested has the greatest ability to discriminate two points?

What region of the skin tested has the least sensitivity to this test?

What is the significance of these observations?

A3

b. Predict how a two-point threshold measurement of your lips would compare to the areas of the body you tested and

recorded in #1.

A3

PART D: Sense of Temperature Assessments
1. Record a + to indicate where warm was felt and a 0 to indicate where

it was not felt. A4

2. Record a + to indicate where cold was felt and a 0 to indicate where

it was not felt. A4

.

365

3. Answer the following questions:

a. How do temperature receptors appear to be distributed in the skin of the palm? A4

b. Compare the distribution and concentration of warm and cold receptors in the skin of the palm. A4

NOTES

357

Name _____________________________________________

Date _______________________________________________

Section _____________________________________________

Dissection of the Sheep Brain

PART A: Assessments

Answer the following questions as you compare the sheep brain and human brain (model or cadaver):

1. Describe the location of any meninges observed to be associated with the sheep brain. A1

2. How do the relative sizes of the sheep and human cerebral hemispheres differ? A2

3. How do the gyri and sulci of the sheep cerebrum compare with the human cerebrum in numbers? A2

4. What is the significance of the differences you noted in your answers for questions 2 and 3? A2

5. What difference did you note in the structures of the sheep cerebellum and the human cerebellum? A2

6. How do the sizes of the olfactory bulbs of the sheep brain compare with those of the human brain? A2

7. Based on their relative sizes, which of the cranial nerves seems to be most highly developed in the sheep brain? A3

8. What is the significance of the observations you noted in your answers for questions 6 and 7? A2

The A corresponds to the indicated Learning Outcome(s) O

found at the beginning of the Laboratory Exercise.

LABORATORY

ASSESSMENT

32

358

PART B: Assessments

CRITICAL THINKING ASSESSMENT

Prepare a list of at least six features to illustrate ways in which the brains of sheep and humans are similar. A2

1. ______________________________________________________________________________________________

2. ______________________________________________________________________________________________

3. ______________________________________________________________________________________________

4. ______________________________________________________________________________________________

5. ______________________________________________________________________________________________

6. ______________________________________________________________________________________________

Interpret the significance of these similarities. A2 _____________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________________________

PART C: Assessments

Identify the features indicated in the median section of the sheep brain in figure 32.8.

FIGURE 32.8 Label the features of this median section of the sheep brain by placing the correct numbers in the spaces

provided. A1

1

2

5
3

22222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222

33333333333333333333333

4 6

7

8

9
10

11

Lateral ventricle

Medulla oblongata

Midbrain

Pineal gland

Pons

Septum pellucidum

Thalamus

Cerebellum

Cerebrum

Corpus callosum

Hypothalamus

© J & J Photography

327

The A corresponds to the indicated Learning Outcome(s) O

found at the beginning of the Laboratory Exercise.

Name _____________________________________________

Date _______________________________________________

Section _____________________________________________

LABORATORY

ASSESSMENT

30
Brain and Cranial Nerves

PART A: Assessments

Match the terms in column A with the descriptions in column B. Place the letter of your choice in the space provided.

A1 A2 A3

Column A Column B

a. Central sulcus

b. Cerebral cortex

c. Corpus callosum

d. Gyrus

e. Hypothalamus

f. Insula

g. Medulla oblongata

h. Midbrain

i. Optic chiasma

j. Pineal gland

k. Pons

l. Ventricle

1. Structure formed by the crossing-over of the optic nerves

2. Part of diencephalon that forms lower walls and floor of third ventricle

3. Cone-shaped gland in the upper posterior portion of diencephalon

4. Connects cerebral hemispheres

5. Ridge on surface of cerebrum with pia mater closely attached

6. Separates frontal and parietal lobes

7. Part of brainstem between diencephalon and pons

8. Rounded bulge on underside of brainstem

9. Part of brainstem continuous with the spinal cord

10. Internal brain chamber filled with CSF

11. Cerebral lobe located deep within lateral sulcus

12. Thin layer of gray matter on surface of cerebrum

PART B: Assessments

Complete the following statements:

1. The ____________________ and the ____________________ together compose the dura mater in the cranial cavity. A1

2. The subarachnoid space contains a protective ____________________. A1

3. The ____________________, a dural septum, is located within the longitudinal fissure between the cerebral

hemispheres. A1

4. The superior sagittal sinus collects and contains ____________________. A1

5. The cerebral cortex contains the ____________________ matter. A2

6. Grooves on the surface of the brain are sulci; ridges on the surface are ____________________. A2

7. The auditory areas of the brain are part of the ____________________ lobe. A2

8. The vision areas of the brain are part of the ____________________ lobe. A2

9. The left cerebral hemisphere primarily controls the ____________________ side of the body. A2

328

10. The brainstem includes the pons, the midbrain, and the ____________________. A2

11. The delicate ____________________ membrane is located on the surface of the brain. A1

12. The ____________________ fissure separates the two cerebral hemispheres. A2

13. The primary motor cortex is located within the ____________________ gyrus. A2

14. Arbor vitae and vermis are components of the ____________________. A2

15. The ____________________ ventricle is located between the pons and the cerebellum. A2

16. The ____________________ connects the two hemispheres of the cerebellum. A2

PART C: Assessments

Identify the features indicated in the median section of the right half of the human brain in figure 30.13.

9

10

Fornix

Fourth ventricle

Spinal cord

1

2

3

6

7

5

PosteriorAnterior

4

8

Brainstem

Cerebellum

Cerebrum

Corpus callosum

Diencephalon

Hypothalamus

Medulla oblongata

Midbrain

Pons

Thalamus

FIGURE 30.13 Label the features on this median section of the right half of the human brain by placing the correct

numbers in the spaces provided. A2

© McGraw-Hill Education/Dennis Strete

329

PART D: Assessments

Identify the cranial nerves that arise from the base of the brain in figure 30.14.

1

2

8

3

4

6

11

10

9

12

7

5

(I)

(II)

(VIII)

(III)

(IV)

(VI)

(XI)

(X)

(IX)

(XII)

Spinal nerves

(tract and bulb from)

Trochlear nerve

Facial nerve (VII)

(V)

FIGURE 30.14 Complete the labeling of the twelve pairs of cranial nerves as viewed from the base of the brain. The

Roman numerals indicated are also often used to reference a cranial nerve. A3

PART E: Assessments

Match the cranial nerves in column A with the associated functions in column B. Place the letter of your choice in the space

provided. A4

Column A Column B

a. Abducens

b. Accessory

c. Facial

d. Glossopharyngeal

e. Hypoglossal

f. Oculomotor

g. Olfactory

h. Optic

i. Trigeminal

j. Trochlear

k. Vagus

l. Vestibulocochlear

1. Regulates thoracic and abdominal viscera

2. Equilibrium and hearing

3. Stimulates superior oblique muscle of eye

4. Sensory impulses from teeth and face

5. Adjusts light entering eyes and eyelid opening

6. Smell

7. Controls neck and shoulder movements

8. Controls tongue movements

9. Vision

10. Stimulates lateral rectus muscle of eye

11. Sensory from anterior tongue and controls salivation and secretion of tears

12. Sensory from posterior tongue and controls salivation and swallowing

330

PART F: Assessments

1. Summarize the results of the basic clinical tests performed to detect any possible damage to a particular cranial

nerve. A4 A5

Name the cranial nerves that indicated normal functional results based upon the clinical tests performed.

Name any of the cranial nerves that had indications of impaired functional results based upon the clinical tests performed,

and describe the specific impaired function observed.

2. Place the number and name of the cranial nerve best associated with each of the following normal abilities or impaired

functions. All twelve cranial nerves are represented for the answers. A4 A5

1. Experiences motion sickness and seems intoxicated

2. Unable to rotate eyeball inferolaterally

3. Able to depress shoulder joint, but unable to elevate shoulder

4. Identifies tissues using the compound microscope

5. Experiences difficulty with tongue movements when talking and swallowing

6. Abducts the eyeballs

7. Detects the odor of burning fall leaves

8. Detects taste sensation of a medicine placed on the back of the tongue

9. Moves jaw from side to side and chews food

10. One pupil of an eye has a different shape and size

11. Hoarseness experienced in voice and difficulty speaking

12. Experiences facial muscle paralysis and sagging corner of mouth (Bell palsy)

313

The A corresponds to the indicated Learning Outcome(s) O

found at the beginning of the Laboratory Exercise.

Name _____________________________________________

Date _______________________________________________

Section _____________________________________________

LABORATORY

ASSESSMENT

29
Reflex Arc and Somatic Reflexes

PART A: Assessments

Complete the following table: A1

Reflex Tested Response Observed Effector Muscle Involved

Response During Mental
Distraction or Fatigue
(no change, more, or less)

Patellar

Calcaneal

Biceps

Triceps

Plantar

What conclusions can you make when comparing results of somatic reflexes under typical laboratory conditions to the results

under conditions of mental distraction or fatigue? How did these results compare to your original prediction? A1

314

PART B: Assessments

Complete the following statements:

1. A withdrawal reflex employs _______________________ in conjunction with sensory and motor neurons. A2

2. Interneurons in a withdrawal reflex are located in the _______________________. A2

3. A reflex arc begins with the stimulation of a _______________________ at the dendrite end of a sensory neuron. A2

4. Effectors of somatic reflex arcs are _______________________ muscles. A2

5. A monosynaptic reflex arc involves a synapse between a neuron and a

neuron. A2

6. The effector muscle of the patellar reflex is the _______________________. A2

7. The sensory stretch receptors (muscle spindles) of the patellar reflex are located in the _______________________

muscle. A2

8. The posterior root of a spinal nerve contains the _______________________ neurons. A2

9. The normal plantar …